Thursday, March 3, 2011

Oracle 10g Pre-installation steps for RHEL 5


Following are the steps required to configure Linux for Oracle Database 10g Release 2.
Verifying System Requirements
To verify that your system meets the minimum requirements for an Oracle Database 10g Release 2 database, log in as root and run the commands below.
To check the amount of RAM and swap space available, run this:
grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
Ex:
  1. grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
    MemTotal: 1034680 kB
  2. grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
    SwapTotal: 1534196 kB
The minimum RAM required is 8GB, and the minimum required swap space is 10 GB. Allocating the Swap space will be based on the DBA team requirement, but the minimum space should be 10 GB.
Memory depends upon the application we are running. For example ,iHotlier database will be having more memory compared to Databridge.
Adding swap space
This option of adding swap space is required only if the server is not configured with the required amount of swap space at the time of installation.
Swapon and SwapOff are two command provided with Linux to enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping.
1)Create Swap File using DD command
dd if=/dev/zero of=/extraswap bs=1M count=12048
2)Setup Linux swap area using MKSWAP command
# mkswap -c /extraswap
# swapon /extraswap
3)run "swapon -s" and view the addition made. or free -m" command to verify addition of your new swap space.
4) Make swap upgrade permanently available to OS through fstab file.
/extraswap        none     swap    sw        0 0 
Create the Oracle Groups and User Account
Next, create the Linux groups and user account that will be used to install and maintain the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 software.
Example:
Groupname Group ID Group ID 
 Production Pre-Prod 
dba 1500 1601 
oinstall 1501 1602 
orasegp  1604 
Username User ID User IDPrimary Group Secondary Group Default shell 
 Production Pre-Prod    
oracle 1500 1600 Dba oinstall /bin/bash 
gridagnt 1502 1605 Dba oinstall /bin/bash 
gguser 1501  Dba oinstall /bin/bash 
orase  1603 Dba orasegp /bin/bash 
       
Set the password for all the user accounts.
Example for Pre-prod:
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1602  oinstall
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g 1601  dba
/usr/sbin/groupadd -g  1604    orasegp
/usr/sbin/useradd -m -u 1600 -g oinstall -G dba -s /bin/bash oracle
/usr/sbin/useradd -m -u 1605 -g oinstall -G dba -s /bin/bash gridagnt
# id oracle
uid=1600(oracle) gid=1602(oinstall) groups=1602(oinstall),1602(dba)
Following directories are being created in the root filesystem.
Production Pre-prod 
/u00  should be a partition of minimum size 15GB, but as a standard follow 30GB of local partition. 
In production environment ./u01 is a separate partition mounted with external lun. 
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01 
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u00 
mkdir /u01 
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle 
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/ 
chmod -R 775 /u01/app/ 
/data  is a separate partition mounted with external lun 
ln -s /data /u01 

chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01 
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u00 
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle 
chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle 
chmod -R 775 /u01/app/oracle 


  

Configuring Linux Kernel Parameters
The Linux kernel is a wonderful thing. Unlike most other *NIX systems, Linux allows modification of most kernel parameters while the system is up and running. There's no need to reboot the system after making kernel parameter changes. Oracle Database 10g Release 2 requires the kernel parameter settings shown below. The values given are minimums, so if your system uses a larger value, don't change it.
/etc/sysctl.conf
kernel.shmmax = 68719476736  (for pre-prod kernel.shmmax = 4180148224)
kernel.shmall = 4294967296
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
fs.file-max = 65536
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65000
net.core.rmem_default=262144
net.core.wmem_default=262144
net.core.rmem_max=262144
net.core.wmem_max=262144
To change the modified Kernel parameters while runtime, execute the below command.
# sysctl  -p
Setting Shell Limits for the oracle User
Oracle recommends setting limits on the number of processes and open files each Linux account may use. To make these changes, cut and paste the following commands as root:
/etc/security/limits.conf
oracle soft nproc 2047
oracle hard nproc 16384
oracle soft nofile 1024
oracle hard nofile 65536
If necessary Stack and MaxLockMem, make these changes, cut and paste the following commands as root
/etc/security/limits.conf
oracle soft memlock 3145728
oracle hard memlock 4145728
oracle soft stack 32768
oracle hard stack 43768
/etc/pam.d/login
session required pam_limits.so
Follow the same steps for given below packages installation
yum update *
yum install binutils*
yum install lib-Xp*
yum install libXp*
yum install compat-*
yum install control-center-*
yum install gcc-*
yum install glibc-*
yum install libstdc++*
yum install make*
yum install sysstat*
yum install xorg-x11-libs*
yum install libaio*
yum install compat-libstdc++*
yum install xorg-x11-*
yum install openmotif*
yum instal glibc-devel*
# rpm -qa --queryformat "%{NAME}-%{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} (%{ARCH})\n" | grep glibc
Enable direct login to oracle and provide sudo to root access for DBA Group to complete the installation. Revoke root access and direct login for oracle from DBA once installation is completed *

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I have started this blog to share my work experience and spread some smart solutions on Linux to Internet community. I'm hoping more people will get benefited from this blog. Brief about me: I have 14+ years experience working as System Admin and currently work with VMware.